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Crimes Against Humanity in East Timor, January to October 1999: Their Nature and Causes
by James Dunn

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Annex A: Senior Indonesian Military Officers Who Should Be Investigated in Relation to Crimes Against Humanity in East Timor

1. Major General Zakky Anwar Makarim

Background: born 1948, Jakarta.

71            Class 2, Akmil/Akabri, Magelang

75             Commander RPKAD (paracommando) company.

75-80       In operations against OPM in Irian Jaya, especially in intelligence role.

83-89       Operations in E Timor as Kopassus officer.

93-94       Assistant for Intelligence, Kodam, Jakarta Raya (under Hendroproyono and Wiranto)

94-95       Deputy Chief of Intelligence Unit, BIA.

95-96       Head, Directorate A (Internal Politics), BIA.

96-97       Assistant1/Secujrity, to the Army Chief of Staff (ASPAM KASAD).

97-99     Head, Armed Forces Intelligence Board (BIA)

99          Chief Liaison Officer between ABRI and the UNAMET mission.

99          at TNI HQ, Jakarta, as Head, Centre for the Coordination of the Upholding of the Law and Security

Comments: One of the stars of his generation, receiving six medals for his performance in Timor in 80s. Alleged to have coerced E Timorese to demonstrate outside Dutch Embassy in Jakarta in 1995. Leading intelligence officer, close to Prabowo. In 1998 mentioned (with Simbolon) as the TNI’s most experienced in covert operations and as ‘two of the most intimately involved in East Timor…. US training unknown but has made number of visits to the US. Widely reported to have been responsible for militia terror against independence supporters and UN workers, which led to his removal from post, following pressure from outside powers, including the US.

Assessment: This officer played a key planning and organization role in relation to militia operations in 1999.

2. Major General Adam Damiri (Infantry)

Background: born 1949,

1972        one of five top Akabri graduates of his year.

70s-80s   Held various positions in Udayana Command.

95-96       Commander, Korem 062/Tarumanegara, Garut, Said to have been involved in attack on PDI HQ in July 1996.

97-98       Chief of Staff, Jakarta Garrison, under Sjafrie.

98             Commander, First Infantry Division, Kostrad, under Prabowo.

98             Appointed to the MPR as a regional representative.

98/99        Commander, Kodam IX/Udayana.

Comments: had no US training: reported to be trusty ally of Prabowo, especially in latter’s rivalry with Wiranto: is on list in KPP report recommending investigations into Timor atrocities.

Assessment: This officer played a key operation command role in relation to events in East Timor in 1999.

3. Major General Sjafrie Sjamsuddin

Background: Born: 1952, Ujung Pandang, South Sulawesi

73            Commander of the Cadet corps at Akabri.

74            Class 5, Military Academy (Akmil)

75-77       Battalion Commander, Group I Kopassandha (forerunner of Kopassus)
Took part as a ‘volunteer’ in Operasi Flamboyan, under Yunus Yosfiah, and in Operasi Seroja in East Timor in 1975.
Commander, Second Company, Group I, Special Forces. Reported to have participated in ‘Operasi Nanggala X’.

78-?         Commander, Executive Unit, Presidential Escort.

80-81       Intelligence Officer, Group I, Kopassus.

82-85       Deputy Commander, Battle Detachment 13, Group I, Special Forces, involved in Operasi Chandra XV in Timor in 1984.

85            Infantry Officer’s Advanced Course, Fort Benning USA

86-89       Deputy Commander, First Battalion, Group I Kopassus. Part of ‘Maleo Team’, with Agum Gumelar, in 87.

91-93       Deputy Assistant for Operations, Kopassus.

93            Brief training course at Swanbourne SAS base, Perth, Australia.

93-95       Commander, Group A, Presidential Security Guard.

96-97       Chief of Staff, Kodam Jaya (Greater Jakarta).

97-98       Commander, Kodam Jaya

99            Member of the MPR, ABRI faction. Also Expert Staff, Defence and Security Affairs, Commander of ABRI Staff.

99            Assigned to East Timor (under Zacky Anwar) at time of the plebiscite.

99-00       Expert Staff, Coordinating Minister for Politics and Security (under General Wiranto).

Comments: Leading Kopassus officer. Fought in Operasi Bravo alongside Prabowo in East Timor. As head of SGI in East Timor in 1991 is said to have had an involvement in the Santa Cruz massacre. Reported to have designed counter intelligence operations in East Timor during his tour. Is reported by intelligence analysts to have prepared the plans for TNI and militia operations, there playing a key role in efforts to prevent loss of East Timor. According to an ANU strategic affairs analyst, Syamsuddin prepared the plans for TNI and militia operations in East Timor at ABRI Headquarters. He was sent to East Timor shortly before the plebiscite where, according to another report, he helped conduct the militia campaign. One of those recommended by KPP HAM inquiry for investigation.

Assessment: Further investigations should show that this officer is implicated as was one of the key military officers responsible for the development of the TNI strategy that led to serious crimes against humanity in East Timor.

4. Major General Kiki Sjahnakri

Background: Born: 1947, Krawang, West Java (Sundanese)

71            Class 2, Akabri, Magelang

                Commander, sub-district military command in Atapupu, West Timor

                Commander of Operations, Kodim 1605, Atambua, West Timor.

82-?         Deputy commander, Battalion 744/Satya Yuda Bakti, East Timor.

80s           Commander 502 Battalion, Malang, East Java.

                Deputy commander, Korem 164/ Wira Dharma, Dili.

94-95       Commander, Korem 164/Wira Dharma (East Timor)

97-99       Assistant for Operations, Army Chief of Staff (ASOPS KSAD), as Brig-Gen. Promoted Maj-Gen in 98.

                Martial Law Administrator for East Timor.

Comments: Very experienced Timor hand. Took part in London talks in April 1999 re future of E Timor. Removed from his post in Timor in 1995 on recommendation of Honour Council investigating the murder of six Timorese at Liquiça. Accused of links with scorched earth policy and of links with Aitarak militia.

Assessment: Some involvement through his position in operational command structure, though perhaps peripheral.

5. Major General Amirul Isnaeni

Background: Born: c1952

                Class 6, Akabri

92            Head, Jaring Merah II Task Force, Aceh

96            Kopassus officer in charge of intelligence team which tracked down OPM rebels holding hostages in Irian Jaya.

98-99       Commander, Army Intelligence Centre.

                Deputy Martial Law Commander, East Timor.

Comments: Has been listed as a Prabowo associate. Reported to have accompanied Zakky Anwar and Kiki Syahnakri to E Timor on secret mission in April 1999 involving liaison work with the militia leaders. Served under Syahnakri in September 1999.

Assessment: On the basis of evidence examined this officer may have had a peripheral involvement.

6. Major General Tyasno Sudarso (Sudarno)

Background: Born – 1948, Magelang, Central Java

70            Class 1, Akabri

95-96       Head, Directorate C, BIA

96-98       Assistant for Planning to Army Chief of Staff.

99           Head, BIA

Comments: Served as intelligence officer under General Murdani in late 80s. Flew to E Timor with Zacky Anwar and Kiki Syahnakri on 20 April 1999, reportedly to organise militias. BIA said to have had the task of securing a favourable result to the plebiscite.

Assessment: Some evidence of involvement, but extent unclear.

7. Brig-Gen Tono Suratman

Background: Born: c1952

                Class 6, Akabri, Magelang

?- 96        Commander, Sector A (Eastern East Timor)

96-98?     Commander, Group III, Kopassus Training Unit (Pusdik Pasus), Batujajar, Bandung.

98-99       Commander, Korem 164/Wiradharma (Dili), with rank of colonel.

98            Appointed to the MPR as a regional representative.

99            Commander, Group 3, (Training) Kopassus (Pusdik passus), Batujajar, Bandung.

99            Deputy Head, Armed Forces Information Centre (Wakapuspen).

Comments: Suratman was a leading star of his generation, who has held important several command posts in East Timor, including sensitive Kopassus posts, which would have involved him closely in operations against pro-independence activists. Alleged to have been responsible for the brutal rape of the wife of a leading Timorese early in 1999. Four months before the plebiscite he is reported to have said that if the vote went against Indonesia ‘Everything is going to be destroyed. East Timor will not exist as now. It’ll be much worse than 23 years ago.’ Militia witnesses allege that he issued orders to kill. Has been accused of sexual assault.

Assessment: On the basis of existing evidence Suratman played a key operational role in relation to militia/TNI operations in East Timor.

8. Brigadier General Mahidin Simbolon

Background: Born: 1951 Samosir Island, North Sumatra.

72            Class 3, Akabri, Magelang

93-95       Assistant for Intelligence, Kopassus

95-97       Commander, Korem 164, Dili

97-98       Chief of Staff, Second Infantry Division, Kostrad, Malang

98-99        Chief of Staff, Kodam IX/ Udayana, the regional command which included East Timor.

Comments: Worked directly under Prabowo when latter was Kopassus Deputy Commander, and considered one of brightest officers. Served six times in East Timor, sometimes with Prabowo. Was involved in military operation which led to capture of Xanana Gusmão, which led to his promotion to colonel. In August 1998 referred to, with Zakky Anwar, as “TNI’s most experienced officers in covert operations” and two of the officers most involved in East Timor. Is reported to have had close links with militia commanders, especially Cancio Carvalho.

Assessment: Though his role in relation to militia violence and the forced deportations is not clear, on the basis of the evidence considered for this report he should be investigated.

9. Brigadier General Gleny Kaikrupan

Born: c1949

72            Class 3, Akabri

?-95         Deputy commander, Korem 164/Dili.

99             Assigned to East Timor in mid 1999 to assist Generals Anwar Makarim and Syamsuddin organise militia operations.

Comment:  His role should be investigated.

10. Brig. Gen. Timbul Silaen (KAPOLI)

Background Comment: I have little information about the background of this Polri commander. He was Chief of Polri in E Timor in 1999 and is alleged to have actively supported the militia operations.

Assessment: Silaen was questioned during the KPP HAM inquiry and is listed among those officers implicated in the events under study. He should therefore be investigated.

11. Colonel Irwan Kusnadi

No early career details

95             Commander of a Central Java infantry battalion ( 432 or 433)

99             Commander, 3rd Airborne Infantry Brigade, Kostrad, and at the same time Commander of East Timor’s Eastern Sector.

Comment: This officer is said to have been under investigation, probably in relation to the deportations.

Assessment: Further enquiries should be carried out.

12. Colonel Nur Muis

Background: Born: Aceh, 1953

Class 7, Akabri.

78-90        experience including some training in Australia and role in UN peacekeeping in Middle East.

97              Commander, 17th Infantry Brigade, Kostrad, Cijantung.

98-99         Commander, Korem 071/Wijayakusuma (Central Java)

99               Commander, Army Combat Training Centre, Baturaja, South Sumatra for short period before being appointed to take command of Korem 164 in Dili. Assumed command only two weeks before the August plebiscite, then conducted his command’s evacuation to West Timor.

2000        Believed to hold senior Java Command.

Comments In relation to TNI security operations this officer has been described as a moderate, but was a key command figure at the time of the plebiscite. He has been accused of active support for the militias.

Assessment: This officer was a key command figure and should be investigated. In the KPP HAM report he is listed as one of the officers implicated in the events of the time.

13. Colonel Herman Sediono

Comment: There is little information on this officer’s military career. In 1999 he was Bupati of Cova Lima, a civil post sometimes assumed by TNI officers. However, there is strong evidence that Col. Sediono played a leading role at the Suai Ave Maria Church massacre. There he was seen in TNI uniform and carrying an automatic rifle. He was also reportedly giving orders to the attacking militia and troops, where a KPP HAM witness alleged he gave orders to kill priests and others.

Assessment: As he donned a combat uniform and carried a weapon, Herman Sediono should be treated as a military commander, and his role close investigated.

14. Lieutenant Colonel Sudrajat AS

98-99          Commander Kodim 1629 (Lautem, Lospalos)

Comments: Commander of the district in which Team Alpha was active, and has been accused of having supplied weapons to the militia.

Assessment: According to the KPP HAM list he is one of the officers implicated in the events of 1999, and his role should therefore be investigated.

15. Lieutenant Colonel Yayak Sudrajat

Background: Birth and professional background details not known.

?-99         Head, Group IV (intelligence/secret warfare), Kopassus, Cijantung .

99           Head of SGI – Satgas Intel Kopassus, also referred to as Satgas Intel Tribuana Kopassus, in Korem 164.

2000       Battalion Commander, Group V (counter-terrorism) Kopassus.

2000       Intelligence Assistant to Commanding General of Kopassus (Asintel Danjen K), replacing Soenarko

Comments: As head of SGI, Lt. Col Sudrajad personally directed the operations of the militia on behalf of Damiri and Suratman. Several militia members have reported his presence at meetings, at which tactics were discussed and funds and arms provided. His role fits in with the shadowy operations of Group IV of Kopassus, which has engaged in covert operations against opposition groups. Called before KPP HAM investigation team. One of those recommended by inquiry for further investigation.

Assessment: On the basis of the evidence considered this officer is deeply implicated in the TNI/militia command structure, and in directing at least some militia operations.

16. Lieutenant Colonel Wioyotomo Nugroho

?-99        Assistant for Intelligence (Asintel), Kopassus. Head, Intelligence Task Force for East Timor (SGI).

99           Post dealing with personnel in Kopassus.

Comments: Alleged to have been involved in setting up militia in 1998 and, in 1999, as ‘a Kopassus intelligence chief’ personally directed their operations, reporting directly to Colonel Suratman and Maj-Gen Damiri. Reportedly played leading role in Kopassus Group IV operations in Timor.

Assessment: This officer exercised a key responsibility in the TNI/militia command structure and his role be much worse than 23 years ago.’ Militia witnesses allege that he issued orders to kill. Is accused of sexual attack on Timorese woman.

17. Lieutenant Colonel Rudianto

Unit/function: sector commander, prominent in Cova Lima operations

Lieutenant Colonel Sudjrajat

Unit/function: Kopassus officer?, District Commander, Lospalos

Role: Commander, during militia/TNI killing operations in Lautem.

Assessment: His role should be the subject of further inquiries.

18. Lieutenant Colonel Jefry Sanakri

Background:  Few details available. Described as Commander of Western Sector.

Accused of command responsibility, according to letter from ‘people of Ainaro’.

Assessment: His role should be investigated.

19. Lieutenant Colonel Burhanuddin Siagian


81           Class 12, Akabri.

95- ?       Commander, 7th Cavalry Battalion, Greater Jakarta.

98-99      Commander, Kodim 1636 (Bobonaro, East Timor)

Comments: Commander of Maliana district during militia violence in April 1999. Reported responsible for brutal reprisal attack, involve death of five citizens chosen at random. Worked closely with Halilintar militia, described as ‘sponsor’. He is named for investigation in the KPP HAM report. In the Yayasan Hak Report, his name is among those listed as very ‘sadistic’.

Assessment:  This officer should be investigated with a view to prosecution.

20. Lieutenant Colonel Muhammad Nur

82           Class 13, Akabri.

98-99      Commander, Kodim 1637, Ermera

Comment: He was commander during the mobilization of militia and other paramilitary groups, and at the time of the plebiscite reportedly (by UNAMET officer) told Polri chief not to intervene in militia operations.

Assessment: Should be investigated.

21. Major Yakraman Yagus

85           Class 16, Akmil.

97           Commander, Kodim 1635, Cova Lima (Suai)

99           Commander, Battalion 744/Satya Yudha Bakti.

Comments: Reported to be a sponsor of Laksaur militia. Was called before the KPP HAM inquiry, and was listed in report as among those implicated in violence.

Assessment: His role should be investigated.

22. Lieutenant Colonel Endar Priyanto

81           Class 12, Akabri

?-97        Chief of Staff, Operations, Korem 164, Dili

97-99      Commander, Kodim Dili district, Korem 164.

Comments: Dili area commander at the time of militia mobilization early in 1999. However, said to be on list for investigation by UN Human Rights Commission, re atrocities in 1999; other comments about him, however, were positive.

23. Lieutenant Colonel Ahmad Masagus

Early career details unknown.

99           Commander, Kodim 1635, Suai district, Cova Lima.

Comments: This officer was commander of the Suai district, at the time of the Ave Maria Church massacre.

Assessment: Although his role unclear, in view of involvement of the Kodim military in the massacre, he should be investigated.

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